The importance of occupational health and safety
Safety engineering is a part of labor protection that considers organizational and technical methods of guaranteeing occupational safety. The main content of safety measures is injury prevention, i.e. prevention of accidents at work. The most important direction in guaranteeing labor safety at the modern stage of highly mechanized production is the creation of such perfectly designed machines and mechanisms, work on which would not pose a danger of entrapment by moving or rotating parts, injuries, bruises, etc., as well as rational organization of production.
The human body is affected by various factors of the external environment, such as: the state of the air environment (its temperature, humidity, pollution by dust, harmful gases and steam), the level of illumination of workplaces, the presence and intensity of electromagnetic fields, noise, etc. These factors can cause occupational diseases. In addition, they weaken the body, reduce attention to danger and are the accompanying cause of many accidents at work.
Therefore, the conditions and safety of the professional work of a locksmith, turner, miller, etc. are determined both by the perfection of the used machines, mechanisms, technology and organization of production, and by the sanitary and hygienic conditions surrounding the workers.
Because of that, the second significant part of labor protection is industrial sanitation, the main purpose of which is to ensure sanitary and hygienic working conditions, which contribute to maintaining the health of workers, as well as preventing the occurrence of occupational diseases and poisoning.
Finally, the third part of labor protection issues is legal labor protection. Soviet labor legislation was established in the interests of workers and, therefore, labor protection.
Safety techniques and industrial sanitation when painting products in mechanical engineering and a number of other rules. In accordance with these rules, all workers entering machine-building enterprises first undergo an introductory briefing on safety techniques and industrial sanitation, and secondly, instruction or training in safe work methods at their workplace.
In the educational institutions of the Vocational Technical University, the study of the rules of safety and industrial sanitation is carried out in the lessons of theoretical and industrial training.
Guided by industry safety and industrial sanitation rules, the enterprise administration develops instructions on safe ways of working for each profession, taking into account the specific conditions of this production, work on a given machine, unit, etc. Such instructions are approved by the chief engineer of the enterprise. They are posted at workplaces and handed out to workers.
Administrative and organizational measures include: prohibition of smoking and the use of open flames during the performance of various works in fire-hazardous areas
premises or near flammable materials; fencing of stocks of burned raw materials, semi-finished products, and finished products; organization of voluntary fire brigades and units; training of workers and employees in fire safety measures.
The measures aimed at quick elimination of fire outbreaks include: arranging special roads and convenient entrances to buildings and special passages to hard-to-reach places; arrangement of fire escapes, water supply, signaling and communication; equipment in the workshops of the primary fire extinguishing stations with the necessary set of fire extinguishers and equipment.
In accordance with the above provisions on safety and fire-fighting equipment, specific instructions are developed for each profession. As an example, the application provides a typical safety instruction for locksmiths.